# Product Construction – Scientific Application

Scientific Application

<Purpose>

Question: How does slope of ramp affects (changes) amount of work to pull an object?

What We Will Find Out: In this experiment, we will pull an object up the inclined plane, 0.10m vertically and measure slope and effort force. We did for 5 ramps and compare, how slope of ramp affects (changes) effort force.

Hypothesis & Explanation: I think as slope gets steeper amount of work will increase. If slope get steeper effort distance will get shorter because, rise of ramps has to be same and length of run is decreasing.  So, if effort distance gets shorter the more newton will be required to pull an object, because ramp got steeper. So, as effort distance decrease slope gets bigger the effort force needed will increase as well, which means amount of work will increase as well. Because, work is effort distance times effort force.

<Variables>

Independent Variable:

Slope (Rise/Run) of each Ramp

Dependent Variable:

Work (Force*Distance) done to pulled the object (my pencil case)

Control Variable:

• Rise of ramps
• Weight of object I used for experiment (my pencil case),
• Size of Ramp
• Weight of ramp
• Measurement of meter stick.

<Method>

– Materials

1. Inclined Plane (Ramp): We used Inclined Plane (Ramp) to test how slope effects work.

2. Object (My Pencil Case): My pencil case is subject of experiment.

3. Spring Scale: We used spring scale to measure effort force used to pull an object.

4. Meter stick: We used meter stick to measure run, rise and effort distance

– Photo Journal

• Step 1 In this experiment, we lifted an object straight up to 0.10m. 0.10m is load distance. And, load force is force (Newton) required to pull an object straight up. We used spring scale to measure load force used to lift my pencil case straight up to 0.10m.

• Step 2 Now, we pulled my pencil case up the inclined plane, 0.10 vertically and measured effort force. I put books under ramp, height of 0.10m because it I had to move 0.10m vertically. Then, I pulled an object up the inclined plane and measured the force used to pull my pencil case. I used spring scale to measure effort force used to pull my pencil case up the inclined plane.

• Step 3 To measure the slope and to find out how slope effects work we have to know run of the ramp. Run is width of the ramp. It’s not length of ramp, it’s length horizontally. Which means, distance between the book and a ramp. We used meter stick to measure the run.

• Step 4 To know the slope of the ramp, we need to measure rise of ramp as well. Rise is height of the ramp.  But, rise is not height of end of ramp. It’s where ramp and height (Books) meet. Which, means height of book I used to support ramp. Because, top of books is where it meats with ramp. I used meter stick to measure the rise.

• Step 5 To get work done in each experiment, we need effort distance and effort force. Effort distance is length of ramp. But, it’s not just length of ramp. It’s length from point that books and ramp meet. I used meter stick to measure effort distance.

• Step 6 Lastly, to calculate work done we have to multiply effort distance and effort force. Effort force is force (amount of energy) we used to pull the object. In each experiment using ramp, we connect same object which is my pencil case with spring scale and pulled it up.

– Data

 Run Rise Slope (Rise/Run) Effort Distance (m) Effort Force Work (Effort Distance*Effort Force) Ramp 1 76 13 0.17 0.8 0.8 0.64 Ramp 2 79 9 0.11 0.81 1.2 0.97 Ramp 3 80 5 0.06 0.81 1.5 1.21 Ramp 4 81 12 0.14 0.83 1 0.83 Ramp 5 84 8 0.09 0.85 0.8 0.68 <Evaluation>

Reliability:

I think measurements I made are certain. I’m sure my measurement are certain because I measured the rise, run and effort distance, and force more than once. Also, I worked with Timur.  So, Timur measured the rise, run and effort distance, and force as well. So, we measured the rise, run and effort distance, and force least twice. I think 2 times are enough to be accurate and to be “multiple trials”. But, I could be uncertain in some parts. I’m sure that measurements I read is certain but, I’m not sure if I measured it correctly. For example, when I was lifting my pencil case straight up to 0.10m, I’m not sure if ruler was perpendicular to the table.

I could make my measurements more certain by measuring rise, run and effort distance by several more time. To get most accurate result we need to do experiment about 5-6 times, which called “Multiple Trials” to be sure that my data and result is correct. Also, to make my measurements more certain I need to make sure that I’m doing correct experiment. For example, I need to make sure that I’m doing experiment in correct way and using proper materials. When, I’m measuring rise of ramps I need to remind myself that meter stick has to be perpendicular to the table.

Validity:

I think my experiment is closer to unfair. I didn’t do good job at keeping controlled variables same. First, during experiment I forgot that rise has to be same and just made any slope without considering that I need to keep rise same and just changing run. Second, I might have changed weight of object, which is my pencil case. I finished my experiment through 2days. During, those days I lost black pen. Even though, black pen is only about 10-15 grams, the weight of object (pencil case) changed.

I could keep controlled variables same. To make the experiment more fair I should kept rise of 5 ramps same. Because, reason why my experiment was not fair is I didn’t keep rise of ramps same. To keep rise of ramps same, during experiment, I need to remind myself that rise of ramps have to be same.

1. Graph
• Sample Graph • My Graph Comparison: Sample graph and my graph look different. In sample data, there was no big difference in amount of even when slope increased. But, in my graph there are many big differences of amount of work in each slope. For example, like between slope 0.06 to 0.09 amount of work decreased a lot and between slope 0.09 to 0.11 amount of work increased again. I think it’s because, in sample experiment, the slope of ramp didn’t really affect amount of work. And, in my experiment, the slope affected amount of work a lot.

2.  Table

• Sample Table • My Table Comparison: Comparing sample table and my table, they are different. Ramp used in sample experiment was steeper than ramp used in my experiment. Because, slopes are bigger. And, in sample experiment amount of work was mostly same. It was always about 0.6. But, in my experiment amount of work kept changing.